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顾问  凌如海   《中国对外贸易》   第3期
 
    chain, Wal-Mart in inventory management and logistics systems, and Solectron Technology in the quality management ... all these industry leaders began a new era in operations management, and also make great profits.

■ Human resources

    Human resources management is another power of the competition ability.Talent ion, effect and nurturing and encouraging are the central part of the management of a successful enterprise. Konosuke Matsushita’s idea of talent is seldom seen in the West, but this help Panasonic developed weak to strong. At the beginning, the company was small, so it can only absorb personnel unemployed by Mitsui, Sumitomo, Mitsubishi and other large enterprises. Matsushita believes that the company’s rapid growth is the result of these who were seen as secondary talents. Mr. Matsushita favored those people with a score of 70 or so, as they have three advantages. First, they are generally very easy to integrate into a team; secondly. Second, they are eager to chase “the top”. Third and the most important, they are more loyal to the company. While expanding in international market, Matsushita Electric gradually formed a unique pattern of human resources management, “five 70-percent principles”, namely 70% use of talents, 70% trust in employees, 70% exploration of advantages and disadvantages of the staff, 70% authorization and winning 70% of employees’ satisfaction. This management was developed in practice, and this unique management method helps the company establish advantages on human resources.

    As to the Chinese companies, they have chances to learn advanced experiences international companies and the fruits of management theory research, and could set up human resources system in a short time, making use of sophisticated management models. The core content of the new human resources management system includes three parts: job management, remuneration management and performance management. Lenovo Group used to explore various fields and market products under big departments. And all business departments have developed their own wage systems, messing up the group management. Yang Yuanqing, senior vice president at that time actively promoted the establishment of a unified salary system,and he commissioned management consultants to assess the value of positions, and to design a unified wage system in the group. As advocated by Yang Yuanqing, the establishment of wage system in the group based on normative value system and job evaluation projects not only promoted the internal flow of talents and the external recruitment, but also effectively lifted the staff’s morale, strengthened the cohesion of the group and increased the competition ability.

■ Entrepreneurial spirit

    The leadership of entrepreneurs is also strengthening the competition ability. “Entrepreneurs” was firstly mentioned by Jean Baptiste, a French economist, in 1800. In his view, entrepreneurs can improve the efficiency of economic resources. “Entrepreneurial spirit” is the collection of special skills of entrepreneurs (including mental and technique). In other words, entrepreneurship refers to the talent showed in the establishment and management of companies, and it is an important and special intangible production element.

    In the book named “Economic Development  Theory”, Schumpeter put forward his “innovation theory”. The so-called “Economic Development” means the society continuously realizing “new combinations”. The new combination includes five elements: (1) introduction of new products, (2) introduction of new technology, (3) exploration of new markets, (4) acquiring new supply sources of raw materials, and (5) realization of new forms of organization. According to Schumpeter’s theory, “innovation” is an “internal factors”, and “economic development” is also “changes in economic life caused by internal creativity”. Peter Drucker inherited and carried forward Schumpeter’s theory. He believes that the most important part of the entrepreneurial spirit is innovation, and further he equates the leadership of entrepreneurs and the management. I had talks with hundreds of top managers of dle and large sized companies in different industries in the five years as a consult, and most utives believe that the entrepreneurs have a decisive affect on whether their business could succeed or not.

    Usually, entrepreneurs are not found, but discovered, as it depends on individual’s talent and will. However, entrepreneurial spirit can be nurtured. Siemens holds a belief that employees are “internal entrepreneurs and actively digs their potentials. In this process, the managers act as coaches, and the staff cooperate. And the managers guide stuff’s reasonable targets and leave room for them to play. Therefore, Siemens AG has gained an enviable record of products innovation and growth.

    One major acteristic of entrepreneur spirit is adventure, courage to bear the failure and pursuing innovations. As a company well known for its ability on new products development, 3M has a famous slogan, that is “In order to find the prince, you have to kiss numerous frogs”. Giving a correct understanding of the failure is becoming a corporate culture of the company. There is saying of “wild culture” in IBM’s corporate culture. The president often said to these senior managers: “you can easily acclimatize a wild duck, but it’s so hard to turn domesticated ducks into wild. In other words, we must cherish the employees’ new, extraordinary and special ideas, and encourage them to put ideas into new products and new technologies. It is not right to make the staff conform to conventions and only waiting for instructions.” COFCO, a well-known state-owned enterprise, developed an ordinary institute into a large international company. Leaded by Zhou Mingchen, the company took adventure to go listed in Hong Kong through buying a shell, and develops in various fields through being listed. Thanks to the entrepreneurship, COFCO was successful in making profits, and brought benefits to the state, shareholders and employees. Later, more and more stateowned enterprises got listed in Hong Kong and oversea stock markets, which gives examples to the domestic companies.

■ Conclusion

    Operations management, human resources system and the entrepreneurial spirit, the three factors mutually affect each other. Good human resource system is conducive to the discovery and ion of talents with creativity inside the company, and through them to promote revolution and improvement of operation and management min a number of areas. Good operation mode will increase corporate profits and prestige, providing better salary and welfares, attracting and retaining talents, and making preparation for further innovation and adventure on human resources and finance.